Colonial Blacksmith Information

Although the US became independent of Britain in 1776, the countrys dependence on Britain and Europe for the goods needed to build the new country remained. For many years all the mechanical equipment the country needed was imported. With the beginning of the industrial revolution in Britain, the sophistication of the machinery began to increase and so did the cost. Whether the increased costs of this machinery was justified or just a case of a near monopoly supplier using its position to charge exorbitant process is still being debated today. Whatever the reason, the end result was that imported equipment became too expensive to be economical. But since the country needed more and more such goods, from ploughs to printing presses to cannons, the only options was to start manufacturing them domestically. Craftsmen began to make things that till then had been imported. The range of products was vast, from furniture to glass, leather goods, gunpowder to sewing needles and wagon wheels and much more.

The wealthy tended to look down on such craftsmen as being socially inferior to them and none suffered more from this than the blacksmith whose forge was hot, dirty, sweaty and full of smoke and soot. The blacksmith himself would usually be covered with the by products of his trade. And yet, the blacksmith was also the most important man in the village. His was an art that not everyone was strong enough to undertake or had the aptitude for. But every other craftsman depended on the blacksmith to provide the tools that were needs for the other crafts to develop.

The Colonial blacksmiths job revolved around creating and repairing iron tools and implements that were needed in farming, construction and engineering. From ploughs to door hinges to gears and armaments, there was no field of colonial activity where he did not play a part. Becoming a blacksmith in colonial times was not easy. Although there were no formal qualifications, a young man had to undergo a long period of apprenticeship until he had learned enough of the trade to start out on his own. A boy usually became an apprentice at the age of 14 or 15 and continue with the apprenticeship until he reached the age of 20 to 22. The apprentice lived in the forge shop and was responsible for it upkeep, cleanliness, lighting the fires each day and all the other chores. As time passed he would begin to help the master blacksmith in minor metal work and as his skills increased he would be given larger roles until such time as he was able to undertake large and complex projects on his own, at which time his apprenticeship was considered to be over.

The colonial blacksmith was part of the expansion into and settlement of the interiors of the country. As the population spread westwards, every settlement needed a blacksmith without whom the settlements would not be able to produce or repair the implements they needed to survive. As the settlements grew and more blacksmith set up shop, they diversified their trade from manufacturing the tools of survival to making items of domestic use and for decoration. Relics of colonial blacksmith work show impressive degrees of fine details and adornment.

A Look At The 2013 Ford C-Max Hybrid

Ford brings something different to the U.S market with the C-Max Hybrid. The American automaker is generally known for its durable trucks like the F150 and efficient compact cars like the Fiesta. However, Ford is taking a risk by introducing a vehicle type that is generally not as popular in America as Europe; the wagon. What makes the C-Max different from every other wagon on the market is it’s fuel efficiency; it achieves an impressive 47 mpg overall.

One look at the C-MAX lets you know that this isn’t an ordinary car. Its design is practical with five doors while still being edgy and modern at the same time. The C-Max is a brand new model to the Ford lineup; 2013 will be the first time that it will be available to U.S buyers. Buyers are able to select from two trim levels; SE and SEL. The more expensive SEL model comes equipped with a liftgate, a rear camera, and upgraded sound system and a glass roof. Both of the trim levels are powered by a 2.0 4 cylinder and achieves 188 horsepower thanks to an electric motor that works in tandem with a traditional engine. The electric motor is powered by a 1.6 lithium ion battery that is stored in the trunk space.

Acceleration is fast and powerful despite the C-Max’s hybrid status partly due to the CVT transmission. Curb weight for the C-MAX is substantial and comes in at 3600 pounds. When it comes to speed, the C-MAX can reportedly reach 62 mph just on electric power. Mileage range is also significantly higher than that of the Prius V; the C-MAX’s main competitor. The interior is spacious with sufficient room for five adults and fine materials. Standard features include USB compatibility with most music players and Bluetooth compatibility which allows the driver to make hands free telephone calls.

Optional features include MyFordTouch, SYNC, a tailgate system, navigation, a rearview camera and a self-parallel parking feature which can come in handy for those who live in crowded cities. Cargo space stands at 24.5 cubic feet. Safety features include an air bag system, 4 wheel disc brakes, ESC, brake assist and traction control. Pricing ranges from the mid $25k range for the base model all the way to $28k for a top of the line trim level with all of the bells and whistles. The Ford C-Max hybrid would be a good choice for anyone looking for a hybrid vehicle with great mileage.

The Great World Of Night Club Lighting

Some of the night clubs in Europe and in America have changed themselves so much so that even their regular customers could not recognize the place, once they visited the club after the renovation exercise. All as a result of the new and latest technology in the night club lighting that has led to this transformation and a kind of revolution in the night clubs throughout the cities of Europe and America.
The world of night club lighting is made of various parts and primarily includes disco and dance floor lighting, LED ceiling and wall panels, lighting for the night club furniture and special lighting for the clubs. The night club lighting is much more vivid than ever before and therefore is instrumental in pulling more and more individuals into the clubs.
The night club furniture has additionally gone through some out-of-the-world transformations to stay in tune with the effects of the night club lights and the effects that they are producing over the crowds, that are going berserk and out of control.
Each of these elements have been at the centre of focus for long now and night club interior designers are studying them in depth to understand the psychology that is driving these transformations and the effect of the same, to better understand and develop the tomorrows night club lighting and night club furniture.
So you can expect far more vibrant, world quality fixtures, night club lighting, and furniture in the times to come, as the work is on and the research advances to more fully transform them and advance to the next stage of imagination and creation.
It is not simple to design the world quality night clubs with only night club lighting and night club furniture. There is a lot that goes into combining these elements intelligently and smartly to get the needed final results and to create that effect that can dazzle them all and keep them going all through the night.
The lights for night club are not only a source of entertainment, they are at the center of the party and are responsible for getting the customers in and keeping them in the club till late in the morning.
We know light is the source of energy and once we talk about the night club lighting, you know we need to keep the energy amounts highs, as the real source is not in sight and the party will need to last the night.

Art Deco Bedroom Styles

Art Deco is still one of the most sought after design schemes especially for bedrooms. The simplistic glamour and sleekness of art deco design makes it perfect for a striking bedroom scheme. Art Deco was characterised by its bold yet simple and deliberate shapes, attractive patterns and neutral luxurious colour palette.

The Art Deco period was one of sophistication and glamour with a quiet air of extravagance and money. Glamorous with an eclectic mix of textures and designs summed up this sumptuously design forward look. The Art Deco bedroom was one that made a feature out of the bedroom no longer leaving it just for sleeping but rather a room for spending time, relaxing and luxuriating in. Moving the bedroom on from a place for your bed and to sleep in left room for the introduction of a wider range of pieces of bedroom furniture. For instance the bedroom was no longer just for a bed but there were armchairs, chaise lounges, writing desks, feature lamps, rugs and screens.

A portrayal of wealth and affluence was significant of bedroom furniture design from the Art Deco period which originated in Europe in the early part of the 20th century particularly taking precedence after the Great War and symbolising the 1920s and 1930s.

The Art Deco movement in bedroom furniture showcased the varieties of wood that could be utilised and the different look that each type gave to the overall feel of the room. Some of the most popular choices were Violet Wood, richly vibrant in colour originating from Brazil and also known as Kingwood. Ebony and Mahogany because of there striking colours and their connotative indications of affluence and expense were also popular choices for bedroom furniture in an Art Deco room.

Wood played a huge part in the Art Deco movement being shaped and formed into exquisite patterns and shapes, often combined with other pieces of furniture in a mixture of textiles such as in an armchair with a wood inlay. Another trend was the massively popular parquet flooring of the 20s and 30s which was a geometric pattern of wood giving a much sought after wood effect which is still a popular choice of flooring today.

The Art Deco bedroom colour scheme was one of two facets from the luxurious, natural colour palette of cream, monochrome, dove and gunmetal grey to strong geometric patterns and striking sunbursts. Often the richer colours were used as accents in an Art Deco bedroom with the fabric of a dressing table stool, or cushions on an armchair or bed linen being a slightly bolder more striking colour choice than the walls or larger pieces of furniture which were often wood anyway.

Flexidry Enhancing Energy Efficiency For Modernahus, The New Green Housing Solution For The Uk

ModernaHus, the new generation of energy efficient green homes for the UK, will have 9500sm of its underfloor heating screeded with FlexiDry F1/7 day dry floor screed.

ModernaHus is being introduced in the UK after long trials by Scandinavian builders, Skanska. This innovative green home solution has already been adapted by several countries across Europe, and has been in the test phase in the UK for several years.

After two years of trials and considerable adaptation to suit the UK market and environment, the ModernaHus UK project is now underway and is scheduled for completion by October 2011.

The first phase of the ModernaHus UK project will comprise of 108 one to four bedroom residential units, in a rejuvenated site in Coldharbor Lane, Brixton. A good majority of the construction elements will be manufactured offsite and delivered to the site, ready for installation. This prefabricated building system has been found to be successful in bringing down the effective construction time while ensuring site safety as well as quality and finish of the products.

For energy efficiency, ModernaHus combines a well insulated building envelope, under floor heating, ground source heat pumps, solar panels and a central biomass boiler. The ModernaHus homes which will be 30% more efficient than normal homes, has obtained the Code for Sustainable Homes, Level 4.

With energy efficiency figuring as the priority for modern buildings, FlexiDry fast drying floor screeds is one of the screeds that is very much in demand by most major builders. When underfloor heating system can enhance energy efficiency, the use of the right screed is found to compound its effectiveness by acting as a thermal mass to dissipate the heat. FlexiDry floor screeds act as very good thermal conductors of heat and cut down the thermal losses and reduce the amount of heat required at the source. With an efficiency of 20-30% more than the normal anhydrite screeds, and drying times as less as 3 days to 21 days, FlexiDry is currently the chosen name for most of the major projects like ModernaHus.

Was the Great Pyramid of Giza a Water Pump

The Great Pyramid’s upper chamber was intended to be used to burn wood, and was in some ways a sort of ancient gas furnace. The Great Pyramid was not simply a shrine or temple, as many suggest. If you have been to Europe and seen the monstrous churches and cathedrals, you know that cultures will fritter time and resources building huge religious structures.

Temples are difficult to mistake for something else. Its many unique design components make the Great Pyramid impossible to mistake for a temple or house of worship.

The shafts are one example. Two point eight million stones were required to build the Great Pyramid, each weighing two tons. They are all aligned with such precision that there is not even an inch of drift. The Great Pyramid was 38 stories high with its capstone. Truly try to imagine primitive workers quarrying and placing two point eight million stones to such heights with such exacting specifications.

Now add a shaft. A shaft which must begin on the outside of the pyramid, and penetrate to the center of the pyramid. Hundreds of blocks must now hove grooves carved in them which line up with precision of less than a thousandth of an inch. Would such a feature really have been included if the structure was merely for homage to some primitive God?

Of course not.

Other features besides the shafts include the King and Queen’s Chambers, Grand Gallery, and grotto. It is hard to interpret these as having a purpose related to worship. Rather, they seem to have some mechanical purpose. Which would make sense if the Great Pyramid were a machine designed to serve some mechanical purpose.

What is that purpose?

Egypt’s prosperity depended upon the Nile, and the fertile farmland it created when it flooded surrounding plains each year. Egypt was the bread basket of the ancient world, its Nile flood plains were the ancient world’s equivalent of America’s great plains.

It has been suggested that the Great Pyramid was actually a two phase pump which raised water to a height of almost 30 stories via the shafts. Aqueducts would have then caught water, and their gradual downward slope would have transported away from the pyramid to the surrounding plains without need for further pumps. The Great Pyramid thus would have been an agricultural watering device that made the flood plains larger than normal.

This pump theory is not perfect, but the Great Pyramid’s internal design is clearly a piece of mechanical engineering meant to create some sort of machine, not a mere tomb or temple. The purpose and design of that machine will have to be figured out if we are ever to truly understand the enigmatic Great Pyramid.

Wood would have been ignited in the upper chamber, which would have consumed all the air and created a reduced or low pressure area that would have drawn water upward in accordance with Bernoulli’s principle. This chamber did not heat like gas furnaces in our homes today, but it was an isolated an enclosed chamber which had many design features of the gas furnaces in our homes. The King’s chamber and Queen’s chamber were two separate phases of a two phase pump which was the Great Pyramid.

How The Cheese Making Procces Has Changed Through The Years

The many different types of cheeses available mean there is something to suit every taste. It is generally believed that cheese was first made in the Middle East. Legend has it that a nomadic Arab made cheese by accident when a saddlebag filled with milk fermented due to the hot sun and the galloping movement of his horse.

Early cheeses were not the solid products we eat today. They were simple curds and whey, like what Little Miss Muffet ate. The curd is the solid part while the whey is liquid.

Workmen making cheese are depicted in Egyptian hieroglyphics. In ancient times, the whey was eaten immediately while the curd was salted or dried for preservation. The Roman Legion helped spread the art of cheesemaking throughout Europe and England. The monasteries and feudal estates of Europe made great improvements in cheesemaking during the Middle Ages. Many of the classic varieties of cheese enjoyed today were developed by monks. During the Renaissance, cheese decreased in popularity because it was considered unhealthy. By the nineteenth century, sentiment had changed and cheese production moved from farms to factories. No one involved in the early history of cheese could have imagined that today people would buy cheese online.

While most cheeses are mass produced today, some artisanal cheeses are still made by hand using old-fashioned techniques. When you buy cheese online, it is possible to deal directly with the people who make the cheese.

How cheese is made today

Cheese can be made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep and even buffaloes. The basic principle involved in making natural cheese is to curdle the milk so it forms into curds and whey. Contemporary cheesemaking methods stimulate the curdling process by using a starter, which is a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid, and rennet, a coagulating enzyme to speed up the separation of liquids and solids. Different bacterial cultures are used depending on the type of cheese being made.

The least sophisticated types of cheese for sale are the fresh, unripened varieties like cottage cheese. These are made by warming milk and letting it stand, treating it with a lactic starter to help the acid development and then draining the whey. The cheese is eaten fresh. This is the simplest form of cheese.

For more complex cheeses, bacterial cultures are used to lower the pH or acidify the cheese. It is important to make sure the right amount of acid is produced or the cheese’s texture will be poor. At this point, the cheese will begin to coagulate and form curds and whey. The process is enhanced by adding rennet.

The curd is then heated and cut, allowing whey to escape. The curd hardens before it is salted, shaped and pressed. Depending on the variety, the cheese will then be aged or ripened for different amounts of time. Bacteria are still growing in the cheese, resulting in flavor and texture changes.

Cheese rinds are formed during the ripening process, often naturally. The rind’s main function is protecting the interior of the cheese while allowing it to ripen harmoniously. Its presence does affect the final flavor of the cheese. Every variety of cheese for sale has gotten to market after being made through some variation of this process.