Hybrid Cars For Energy Efficiency

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled powA hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more discrete power sources to propel the vehicle. Common power sources include:

On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled power source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.er source (internal combustion engine or fuel cell)

Air engine and internal combustion engines

Human powered bicycle with electric motor or gas engine assist

Human-powered or sail boat with electric power

The term most frequently refers to Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) which comprises internal combustion engines and electric motors.

Early hybrid systems are being examined for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with a few operational trucks and buses initial to come into use. The chief barrier seem to be smaller fleet sizes and the extra costs of a hybrid system are yet remunerated for by fuel savings, but with the price of oil set to persist on its upward trend, the tipping point might be reached by the end of 2008. Advances in technology and lesser battery cost and higher capacity etc. urbanized in the hybrid car industry are already filtering into truck use as Toyota, Ford, GM and others initiate hybrid pickups and SUVs. Kenworth Truck Company lately introduced a hybrid-electric truck, called the Kenworth T270 Class 6 that for city usage appear to be competitive. FedEx and others are preparatory to invest in hybrid delivery type vehiclesmainly for city use where hybrid technology may pay off first. The U.S. military is inspecting hybrid Humvees and other vehicles.

When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it normally refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These cover such vehicles as the AHS2 (Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, Chevrolet Silverado, Cadillac Escalade, and the Saturn Vue), Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid and others. A petroleum-electric hybrid normally uses internal combustion engines and electric batteries to control electric motors. There are loads of types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains, from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid, which proffer varying merits and demerits.
While liquid fuel/electric hybrids in the late 1800s, the braking regenerative hybrid was invented by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer from Springdale, Arkansas in 1978-79. His home-converted Opel GT was reported to get as much as 75MPG and plans are still sold to this novel design, and the “Mother Earth News” customized version on their website.

Hybrid fuel (dual mode)

Additionally, vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also deem vehicles that use discrete energy sources or input types (“fuels”) using the same engine to be hybrids, even though to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use in the approved manner the terms, these are perhaps more suitably described as dual mode vehicles:

A few electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and
Overhead electrical power depending on circumstances (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be pooled with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, though as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced.

Flexible-fuel vehicles can be able to use an assortment of input fuels (petroleum and biofuels) in one tank characteristically gasoline and bioethanol or biobutanol, though diesel-biodiesel vehicles would also meet the criteria.

Dual mode: Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are diverse from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the identical tanks, so it would be unfeasible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. As an alternative vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the replicated tanks cost space in some applications, the augmented range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a noteworthy incentive to purchase.

Few vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars customized to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels customized to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel.

Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and additional human-powered vehicles are also integrated.

Fluid power hybrid

Hydraulic and pneumatic hybrid vehicles employ an engine to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels through hydraulic or pneumatic (i.e. compressed air) drive units. The energy recovery rate is elevated and therefore the system is more efficient than battery charged hybrids, demonstrating a 60% to 70% increase in energy economy in EPA testing. Under tests performed by the EPA, a hydraulic hybrid Ford Expedition returned 32 mpgU.S. (7.35 L/100 km / 38.4 mpgimp) City, and 22 mpgU.S. (10.69 L/100 km / 26.4 mpgimp) highway

The most recent hybrid technology is the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV is inclusive of a gasoline-electric hybrid whose battery pack (usually Li-ion) is upgraded to a superior capacity, which can be recharged by moreover a battery charger curved into the electrical grid or the gasoline engine (only if required). The car runs on battery power for the first 10 to 60 miles (16100 km), with the gasoline engine on hand for faster speeding up, etc.

After the battery is almost discharged, the car reverts to the gasoline engine to recharge the battery and/or return the car to the charging station. This may get around the fundamental barrier of battery range that has made nearly all pure electric cars impractical. Fuel rates, in principle, may be as low as 5 cents/mile. It’s not obvious yet whether converting an existing hybrid car will ever pay for itself in fuel savings.

The major problem is finding a good, cheap, high-energy battery packthe equivalent problem that has plagued the unpolluted electric car. If everyone plugged into the function grid to charge up their car this would seem to be just displacing the gasoline/diesel combustion crisis to the trait coal powered electrical generating plant. But, if cars were recharged tardy at night this would allow the base load of the electrical system to be more capable with a much more even base load and electrical power can also be generated by clean wind, hydro, tide power, etc. while most travel is regarding 30 miles/day this may be the cleanest personal transportation system at present available.

There is a “cottage” conversion industry for owner- existing hybrids, and more than a few huge auto industry groups (GM, Toyota, Mercedes etc.) plus the US Department of Energy are investigating this system. No chief car company (as of late 2007) offers PHEVs yet. The characteristic “cottage” industry conversion car is the Toyota Prius (cost of conversion $5k-$40k), as it is a full hybrid with sufficient power in its electrical system to maintain distinctive city speeds.

Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

The hybrid vehicle characteristically achieves greater fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), ensuing in fewer emissions being generated. These savings are mainly achieved by four elements of a typical hybrid design:

-Recapturing energy generally wasted during braking etc. (regenerative braking) this is a mechanism that condenses vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into a further helpful form of energy, particularly in stop-and-go traffic.

-having important battery storage capacity to store and recycle recaptured energy;

– shutting down the gasoline or diesel engine in traffic stops or while coasting or other idle periods;

– civilizing aerodynamics; A box shaped car or truck has to put forth more force to move through the air causing added stress on the engine making it toil harder. Improving the shape and aerodynamics of a car is a fine way to help better the gas mileage and also get better handling at the same time.

– By means of low rolling resistance tires; (tires these days are made to give a fine, smooth ride but hardly ever is efficiency taken into consideration. These tires cause a great pact of drag, once again making the engine toil harder, intense more gas mileage. Hybrid cars use special tires that are more exaggerated than regular tires and stiffer, which decreases the drag by about half, humanizing fuel economy by mitigating stress of the engine.

– relying on mutually the gasoline (or diesel engine) and the electric motors for peak power requires ensuing in a smaller gasoline or diesel engine sized more for normal usage rather than peak power usage.

These features make a hybrid vehicle chiefly efficient for city traffic where there are recurrent stops, coasting and idling periods. Besides noise emissions are condensed, mainly at idling and low operating speeds, in similarity to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. For constant high speed highway use these features are much less helpful in reducing emissions.

All about Your Gas Equipments and Requirements

Most countries use LPG or liquefied petroleum gas for cooking. It is also used for heating or as fuel and even for refrigeration along with cooking. Most of us are aware of and require gas for cooking purposes. Gas is also used for outdoor cooking by many who have a patio or a backyard. People who go for camping also use gas for their various requirements of cooking and generating heat. With so much importance being attached to this form of fuel, it is very important that all the various requirements and equipments needed for it be available to us at all times; and if these are available online, then that is the best case scenario.

Outdoor requirements

Outdoor cooking can be undertaken by people who have a backyard or a patio. Otherwise, people who do not have a definite kitchen area, such as backpackers and campers also resort to outdoor cooking. Using special outdoor gas stoves, cooking, roasting or direct heating is undertaken in the outdoors. Many people also install outdoor fireplaces that help them keep warm even outdoors, during winter. A firebox or a chimney is all they need for these purposes. Some people even go for more permanent set ups that are made of brick enclosures and are more elaborate. Camping requirements

Outdoor gas stoves also come handy when camping or going backpacking. For the purpose of camping, portable gas stoves are needed. These portable stoves or camping gas stoves are lightweight and can be carried with you anywhere you wish. Available in various sizes and shapes, they are designed for outdoor use. They work just as well as your kitchen stoves. For the camping stoves that used LPG as fuel, there are canisters available to be refilled as needed and they also have storage and stowage covers available for easier and better transportation. Boiling rings and burners

Gas burners and gas stoves are different from each other in that burners are primarily used where heat needs to be directed in one particular place, say for example in soldering; while a gas stove is primarily used for cooking and hence heating up the vessel containing food to be cooked that is kept on top of it. Gas boiling rings are something totally different from both the stoves and the burners. Particularly used in commercial or outdoor cooking, boiling rings has parts and functions similar to that of the gas stove. It consists of regulators and an LPG hose and can use LPG, butane or propane as fuel.

How to Use LPG Gas Regulators

Very often people are caught off guard when there is no gas left in the cylinder. This can be quite tough, particularly when you are short on cash. However, with LPG gas regulators you can be better prepared since it will tell you when you are about to run out of gas. This will enable you to know how much gas is left in the cylinder so that you are in a position to replace the cylinder when the need arises. LPG stands for liquefied gas and is essentially a blend of butane and propane, a highly combustible combination. This gas is normally stored in steel cylinders because it evaporates when exposed to room temperature.

Things to Consider

There are quite a few things that you should consider when using a gas cylinder regulator. This is because LPG comprises of butane and propane, both of which are highly inflammable and also quite hazardous. Hence it is very important that you know how to use these regulators so that unnecessary risks can be avoided. When dealing with gas bottle regulators, check the rubber tubing carefully for any signs of cracks or holes so that you can replace it as and when required. Always clean the regulator with a wet cloth and make sure that it is kept far from inflammable things.

Check the regulators for pressure from time to time. In case you smell gas be cautious and avoid lighting a matchstick to determine whether there is a leakage or not. Instead, make sure that all doors and windows are open to allow fresh air to come in. Likewise, avoid operating any electrical appliances or switches in case of a gas leak as it spark a fire quite easily. After taking the necessary precautions, call your gas company so that an experienced person can take care of the leak.

Replacement of Cylinder

When you are replacing your old cylinder and connecting to a new one, press the LPG gas regulator down till you hear a click sound. This indicates that your cylinder is ready for use. Likewise, when disconnecting gas bottle regulators, make sure that the cylinder is completely empty of gas and then switch off the regulator knob. When using LPG gas regulators, one cannot help emphasizing the importance of safety. Make sure that your cylinder is far away from electrical appliances. At the same time refrain from making any repairs yourself. Finally, make sure that you buy gas cylinder regulators from authorized dealers only so that you are sure of its quality and authenticity.

Develop Effective Modern Kitchen Management Skills

If you think that technology and management have entered only our industries and management institutes, you are wrong. These have entered our kitchen also in a big way to change life, especially for women. In fact, the modern kitchen has greatly helped in the empowerment of women.

The changeover from traditional firewood/kerosene to LPG, has revolutionised cleanliness and the environment, and the pressure cooker has helped housewives to reduce cooking time drastically. With the use of the refrigerator, mixer-grinder, microwave oven, electric chimney, etc, the kitchen has totally changed – and so has the way we used to cook and preserve food in the kitchen.

The design and layout are to be taken care of by the architect or the civil engineer while constructing the kitchen. But other things are to be taken care of by the person operating the kitchen. A safe kitchen is one of the first steps in protecting yourself and your family from food-borne illness and the potential dangers of harmful bacteria as well as protecting the person working in the kitchen from LPG leakage and subsequent explosion.

The most common problem in food safety is the attack from bacteria and contamination due to lack of proper cleanliness. To avoid this:

Wash hands often.

Keep raw meat and ready-to-eat foods separate.

Cook food at proper temperature.

Refrigerate food promptly to below 4C.

Hands should be washed in warm, soapy water before preparing foods, especially after handling raw meat, poultry and seafood. Never forget to wash your hands after switching tasks, such as handling raw meat and then cutting vegetables. Also, it is important to wash hands after taking out garbage, sneezing or petting your dog or cat, etc.

Other precautions

– Always use two cutting boards: one strictly to cut raw meat, poultry and seafood; another for ready-to-eat foods like breads, fruits an vegetables.
– After each use, wash cutting boards thoroughly in hot soapy water.
– Discard cutting boards that are worn out with cracks, crevices and excessive knife scars.
– Wash plates between uses or use separate plates: one plate for holding raw meat, poultry and seafood; another for cooked roods.
– Place raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so that the juices don’t drip onto other foods.
– Place washed produce in clean storage containers; not back into the original ones.
– Use two separate clean towels/cloths: one to dry off the kitchen surfaces and another one to dry your hands.
– Use one spoon or laddle to taste food and another to stir and mix food.
– Make sure that you use clean scissors or blades to open bags of food.
– Wear latex gloves if you have a cut or sore on your hand.

Sponges are safe only when cleaned properly. Bacteria live and grow in damp conditions. Wash dishcloth, sponges and towels often in the hot cycle of your washing machine.

Disinfect sponges in chlorine bleach solution. Replace worn-out sponges frequently.

In the cupboard

Clean and cool, dark and dry, are how you should describe your cupboards. Storing non-refrigerated foods in the cupboard between 50F and 70F is the smartest way to keep the bugs away.

Keeping canned foods on hand is smart and practical, but make sure that your stock is rotated. Remember the FIFO method – first in, first out. That means older cans should be up in front so that they are used first. The safest place for a can that is leaking, bulging or cracked, is in the garbage!

Once you have opened a package, make sure that the leftovers are stored in containers that are dry and airtight. This keeps insects out and the flavour in.

Store food safely. Keep chemicals and cleaning agents away from food.

Inside the refrigerator

If there is more mould on your bread than in a pound of blue cheese, or you suddenly notice the remains of last month’s pot roast at the back of your refrigerator, it’s time to get organised. Step one is to keep your refrigerator cold. Most people have no idea what the actual temperature in their refrigerator is.

Since harmful bacteria thrive in warmer temperature, it’s best to keep your refrigerator temperature below 4C. Spending a few dollars on an inexpensive thermometer is a worthwhile investment. Place it in the centre of the middle shelf for an accurate reading.

The internal temperature of your refrigerator is based on many variables – for example, the amount of food in storage, the frequency of opening the refrigerator door, and the temperature of your kitchen. The best way to monitor the inside cooling temperature of your refrigerator is with a refrigerator thermometer.

Keep raw meat containers on the lowest shelf. This helps to keep any juice from dripping onto other foods. If your refrigerator is overloaded, take the time to get rid of the unnecessary items. Cold air should circulate.

Any fridge can benefit from a thorough wipe-down. Get rid of any splatters. Once any food has passed its prime, get rid of it. Get into the habit of dating your leftovers and get rid of anything that has been stored for more than four days.

Food should not be out of refrigeration for more than two hours. Because, if it is exposed to temperature above 4C, harmful bacteria will multiply rapidly. In hot weather (above 32C), the time is reduced to one hour.

If you are not sure that an item is safe to eat, trust your instinct and discard it. Don’t taste it! If there is any sign of mould, that’s another strong reason to dispense with it.

In the freezer

The FIFO method works in the freezer, too. Make sure that your foods are rotated so that you use older items first. An organised freezer makes it easier to find things, too.

Always be prepared

You never know when you will need a little extra on hand. So, stock a supply of non-perishable foods for unexpected needs. Canned fruits, soups and vegetables, peanut butter and nuts are simple staples. Make sure that your emergency stash gets a review every now and then.

Drinking water

Drinking water is the major cause of disease. Full care should be taken. Water for drinking should be boiled as boiling kills all the bacteria and virus. Instead of boiling, ultraviolet water filter can also be used for purifying drinking water in the kitchen.

To ensure safety from LPG leakage:

Use ISI-mark LPG tubes.

Always keep the cylinder in a vertical position.

Regularly check for cracks in the LPG rubber tube.

Keep the kitchen airy with cross-ventilation.

Place the gas stove on a raised platform because LPG is heavier than air and tends to settle on the base.

Do not operate a stove near or facing a window.

Switch off the regulator when cooking gas is not in use, especially at night.

Do not repair the gas stove or cylinder yourself. Whenever required, call the expert from the gas agency.

When it leaks…

Do not operate any electrical switch if you smell LPG leakage.

Never use a lighted lamp to locate the leak. Use soap water solution.

Open all doors and windows.

Call your LPG distributor or Emergency Service Cell.

Close regulator and burner knob.

How to make your kitchen fuel-efficient:

– Organise your cooking. Keep all ingredients ready for cooking. This will help you cook without delay and thus save gas.
– If you have to stop cooking for a short while, shut off the gas.
– Use a pressure cooker to save gas and reduce cooking time.
– Use the small burner. A large burner consumes 15% more gas.
– Always use flat and shallow vessels.
– Cover the vessel while cooking
– Use the required quantity of water while cooking. Surplus water requires more heating and, therefore more gas.
– Bring out frozen materials well in advance to reach room temperature before cooking.
– If the flame is blue, everything is fine. If the outlet holes are blocked and the flame is yellow, clean the burner or get your stove checked by a mechanic.

With the increase of solid waste generated in the kitchen, it becomes a major source of pollution. Solid waste disposal is also becoming a part of kitchen management. Try kitchen manager (the olden days title of ‘cook’ is obsolete for the new housewife) has to take care of solid waste disposal also. For this, the waste generated in the kitchen should be segregated in the kitchen itself into the biodegradable and the non-degradable. The non-degradable should be put in a separate bin. The biodegradable part may be used to produce bio-fertiliser/organic fertiliser in a pit for the kitchen garden. If the facility does not exist, the biodegradable part may be separately handed over to the garbage collector who will use the same for vermiculture to produce organic manure. With water becoming a scarce commodity in the cities, the kitchen manager should also take care to recycle the waste water generated in the kitchen to be used in the kitchen garden, flower beds, etc.

SALIENT FEATURES OF MODERN KITCHEN MANAGEMENT

Scientific design and layout of the kitchen for light, cross-ventilation etc.

Better arrangement of kitchen appliances like gas stove, fridge, water filter, racks, cabinet etc.

Good housekeeping.

Cleanliness and hygiene.

Safety (food safety and personal safety).

Preparation of food without destroying its nutritious values.

Preservation of vegetables and cooked food.

Good cooking habits and conservation of fuel.

Proper disposal of solid waste generated in the kitchen.

Recycling the waste water from the kitchen in the kitchen garden.